As a futurist, I’m continually researching emerging technologies and trends, speaking and corresponding with the scientists, labs and businesses who are helping to build our future.
Recently, I thought it might be fun to share some of what I learn via different channels. You can check out some of these articles at GeekWire, the online technology news site where I’ve been exploring the latest developments in quantum computing, natural language processing, machine learning solutions that protect the environment, deepfakes, coding for the common good and more. I hope you enjoy it!
After defeating the all-time human champions of the game show, Jeopardy in 2011, IBM’s Watson supercomputer was scheduled for an upgrade. Wanting to give it access to a broader vocabulary, its programmers introduced the AI to the Urban Dictionary, a web-based collection of cultural phrases and slang. Unfortunately, because of this, Watson was soon swearing profusely.
Something similar happened in 2016, when Microsoft introduced it’s new Twitter chatbot, Tay, to the world. Based on the persona of a teenage girl, the program devolved into a racist neo-Nazi after less than 24 hours on the internet and had to be removed.
Why do natural language AIs frequently degenerate in this way, cursing and spouting biased, racist and otherwise toxic messages. I recently explored these issues for Geekwire, speaking with a team of researchers from the Allen Institute of Artificial Intelligence and the University of Washington who are exploring this problem. While the problem is very challenging, their work may help address a problem that is becoming increasingly important as we increasingly rely on AIs to communicate with us using natural language.
In writing my latest book, Future Minds: The Rise of Intelligence from the Big Bang to the End of the Universe, it was essential to properly define intelligence in an appropriate context. However, my research led me to over 200 different definitions of this nebulous word, most of which were overly restrictive or naively broad. This is due in large part to intelligence being what AI pioneer Marvin Minsky called a “suitcase word”, a term he used to describe words having many meanings and associations. In a 1998 interview with Edge, Minsky said of suitcase-words (like ‘intelligence’, ‘intuition’ or ‘consciousness’): “all of us use these to encapsulate our jumbled ideas about our minds. We use those words as suitcases in which to contain all sorts of mysteries that we can’t yet explain.”
Because of this and for reasons I expand on throughout my book, I finally arrived at a broad definition that encompasses the ideas I’d been exploring.
Intelligence: An emergent system’s ability to respond to its environment in order to improve its conditions, perpetuate itself and maximize its future freedom of action.”
This allows intelligence to be seen much more as an almost inherent property of the universe, something that isn’t limited to a single species or substrate, but which is an ongoing optimization in those systems that are able to successfully perpetuate themselves into the future. Based on this, while it may take considerable time, it seems likely that advanced technological intelligences will one day become a reality.